fly rod - fly rods are best for moving water, though they're often used for quiet presentation sight-fishing in still water.
In general, they're a lot of work for "blind fishing", unless you're on moving water where they shine.
The reel is single action, at the back of the rod. The weight is the thick line itself, most often a floating line, and holding the line with your free hand is part of casting.
You cast parallel loops, forward and back, trying to present the weightless fly at the end of your leader with the fewest "false casts"
The fly rod guides are simple wire "snake guides"
Fly fishing goes back 500 years or so.
With either spinning rod or baitcasting, the weight is the lure, and the line is thin. The lure weight hauls the line out, and these techniques are less work for blind fishing. The reels are multipliers, in that, one turn of the crank produces 4 to 8 line wraps on the spool.
Spinning rod and reel
The reel also hangs below the rod - usually, your index finger is in front of the reel so you can grab the line with it, and the rest of your fingers are behind the reel.
This is the easiest technique for most to learn, and again, less work for blindly throwing lures or bait into the water.
The line spool is fixed and a rotor and bail wraps line onto the spool.
Confusing the issue, in UK, this is called a fixed-spool reel, and the baitcaster is called a spinning reel (because the spool spins).
To cast, you grab the line with your index finger, open the bail, load the rod with a backward motion, and let her rip forward, releasing the line from your index finger. You also need to get the bail closed as soon as the lure hits the water, or line may keep falling and make a "wind knot" for you.
The line guides are different, loops with hard ceramic rings, aligned to make a straight shot from the line spool to the rod tip.
Spin fishing became common after WWII
Baitcaster is an acquired skill, because the spool spins, and your thumb is the primary brake.
If the spool is spinning faster than the line is going out, the line will backlash on the spool, possibly driving the operator to profanity.
The reel is on top of the rod. The guides are similar to spinning reels, but all close to the rod because the line spool is closer to the rod
Baitcasters go back to the early 19th century.
The advantage to baitcaster is instant retrieve at the end of your cast because of that thumb-control thing.
Actually, all my Japanese UL spinning rods are long progressive tapers, and would double up great as 3/4-wt fly rods.
In the old days of "combo" rods, they all had spinning guides, and most were short para tapers.
If you're having fun and catching fish, who cares what others think.